Writer, Special Adviser to the President of the Republic from 1981 to 1991, founder and first President of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in London from 1991 to 1993, Jacques Attali is currently CEO of A&A, an international consulting firm specialised in new technologies, based in Paris, and President of Positive Planet, an international solidarity organization whose mission is to fight poverty by improving access to financial services through the development of microfinance. Jacques Attali has a doctorate in Economics and is a graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique (first in the class of 1963), the Ecole des Mines, the Institut d’Etudes Politiques and the Ecole Nationale d’Administration. He taught Economic Theory at the Ecole Polytechnique, the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées and the University of Paris-Dauphine. He has received several foreign universities honoris causa. Jacques Attali is a columnist for the magazine L’Express. He has written more than 50 books, translated into more than thirty languages, with over eight million copies sold all over the world, including essays (dealing with a wide variety of subjects ranging from mathematical economics, to music), biographies, novels, children’s tales and plays. Dr. Attali has been designated as one of the three most influential intellectuals in France and one of the 100 most influential worldwide.